3-oxypyridine is a synthetic compound that was developed in Russia for cognitive enhancement and protection.
It’s also known by the names of its derivatives, which include emoxypine, Mexidol, or Mexifin.
3-oxypyridine – An Overview
It may have nootropic benefits for:
- Learning and memory
It may also have a positive holistic effect on diabetes and heart health.
3-oxypyridine was first synthesized by the Russian Academy Of Medical Science.
It is prescribed for various conditions in Russia but is not approved for treatment in the US. However, you can purchase it as a supplement.
It is structurally very similar to Vitamin B6. This similarity may be the source of some of oxypyridine’s therapeutic value.
This nootropic appears to work by increasing neurotransmitters (like serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine), inhibiting free radicals, increasing antioxidant activity, and increasing the binding ability of membranes.
It may also improve cerebral blood flow.
What Does 3-oxypyridine Do?
3-oxypyridine may have some antidepressant properties. Possibly through its action on neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine.
One trial showed that it can increase dopamine activity in the hippocampus in mice. It also improved behavior that is typically associated with mood.
A study of diabetes patients saw that oxypyridine helped with markers of depression after supplementing for 14 days.1Ilia A. Volchegorskii, et al. Effects of Derivatives of 3-Hydroxypyridine and Succinic Acid on Stereotypical Behavior and Catalepsy in Mice Neuroscience and Behavioral… 2018
Researchers found it lowered levels of lipoperoxidation in patients, which is a form of oxidative damage that may be linked to depression and low mood.
It also diminished behavioral manifestations of depression, accompanied by improvement in cognitive functions and quality of life.2Volchegorskiĭ IA, Mester NV. The influence of 3-oxypyridine antioxidants on depression in patients with diabetes mellitus Klin Med (Mosk). 2007
According to researchers, mexidol shows an optimal combination of antidepressant action and impact on carbohydrate metabolism that makes it a promising substance for the treatment of depression in diabetic patients.3Volchegorskiĭ IA, et al. Comparative study of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol effects on affective status, cognitive functions and quality of life in diabetes mellitus patients Eksp Klin Farmakol. 20114Volchegorskiĭ IA, et al. Antidepressant action of emoxipin and mexidol in mice with alloxan diabetes Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2009
3-oxypyridine also decreased the severity of depressive symptoms, and improved the functional status and quality of life in a group of 62 women with rheumatoid arthritis.
It’s antidepressant effects are most likely linked to it’s anti-inflammatory effects in this case.5Sineglazova AV, Volchegorskiĭ IA. Effect of mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-oxypyridine succinate) on the quality of life and depressive symptoms in women with rheumatoid arthritis Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2013
Keep in mind that all of these studies involved patients with underlying conditions health conditions besides depression.
Research is still needed on whether or not oxypyridine could have a nootropic effect on mood in otherwise healthy users.
Emoxipin’s nootropic effect is related to its ability to lower blood sugar.6Volchegorskiĭ IA, Rassokhina LM, Miroshnichenko IIu. Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2011
In Russia, doctors prescribe 3-oxypyridine and its derivatives to treat symptoms of diabetes.
It is not widely used outside of Russia for this purpose, but there is clinical evidence it may be effective.
Oxypyridine can help diabetic patients with insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. This may have a wide range of benefits for the user.7Ilya A Volchegorskii, et al. Insulin-potentiating action of antioxidants in experimental diabetes mellitus 31ПРОБЛЕМЫ ЭНДОКРИНОЛОГИИ, 2010
3-oxypyridine may have some benefits for lowering anxiety.
This nootropic significantly reduced manifestations of anxiety and depression in rats with alloxan diabetes.
Emoxypine was the only medication in the study that reduced manifestations of anxiety not only in comparison with ‘alloxan diabetes-control’ groups but also in comparison to ‘intact control’.8Volchegorskii IA, et al. Anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol in experimental diabetes mellitus Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2017
This anti-anxiety effect seems to be linked with 3-oxypyridine’s ability to reduce hyperglycemia.9Volchegorskii LA, et al. Anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of 3-oxypiridine and succinic acid derivatives in alloxan diabetes Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2015
Again, just like with its antidepressant effects, these studies have primarily looked at test subjects who also suffered underlying health conditions.
So, the jury is still out on whether or not it would have the same effects on healthy users.
3-oxypyridine may have overall benefits for protecting the brain and preserving cognitive function.
One study looked at mexidol (a 3-oxypyridine derivative) in combination with basic therapy with a group of cognitively impaired adults.
Researchers found that mexidol exerted a positive effect on overall mood, normalized the sleep-wake cycle, and promoted rehabilitation of cognitive function.
They concluded that this nootropic can improve the global clinical state of patients, without serious side effects.10Kosenko VG, et al. The use of mexidol in psychiatric practice Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2006
Mexidol also improved the status of patients suffering from encephalophy. This may point to its use as an anti-inflammatory.11Antipenko EA. Adaptogenic effects of mexidol in chronic cerebral ischemia Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2012
Another trial looked at mexidol for treating patients with stroke-induced cognitive dysfunction.
When combined with haldorum and aescucan, mexidol contributed to the improvement of cognitive, adaptive, motor functions of the patients.
Researchers concluded that mexidol may have a use for preserving and recovering mental abilities after injury.12Berezhnaya SV, Yakupov EZ. The neuroprotective therapy of outpatient treatment of chronic cerebral ischemia Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2015
Learning and Memory
3-oxypyridine may have nootropic effect on learning and memory. This may be due to its ability to improve CO2 levels in the brain, as well as its antioxidant effects.
A single dose of emoxipine and mexidol in mice produces antihypoxic effect according to research. This means that it can increase oxygen flow to the brain.
This can correct conditional learning disorders and improve memory in one trial.13Volchegorskiĭ IA, Rassokhina LM, Miroshnichenko IIu. Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2011
Another study, also on diabetic mice, seems to confirm this finding. It saw fewer markers of inflammation and oxidation after giving them 3-oxypyridine derivatives, as well as healthier cellular metabolism.
These effects lead to better performance on memory and learning tasks and behaviors.14Volchegorskiĭ IA, Rassokhina LM, Miroshnichenko IIu. Cerebroprotective effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives in acute phase of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2011
How 3-oxypyridine Works In The Brain
3-oxypyridine and its derivatives seem to work through a wide variety of pathways.15T.A.Voronina. ANTIOXIDANT MEXIDOL. The main neuropsychotropic effects and the mechanism of action. mechanism of action.Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
These nootropics are powerful antioxidants. Research shows they can increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes, specifically superoxide dismutase.
These are responsible for scrubbing lipid peroxides and active oxygen forms from the body before they can damage cells.16T.A.Voronina. ANTIOXIDANT MEXIDOL. The main neuropsychotropic effects and the mechanism of action. mechanism of action.Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
3-oxypyridine also effectively inhibits free radical oxidation of biomembrane lipids.17T.A.Voronina. ANTIOXIDANT MEXIDOL. The main neuropsychotropic effects and the mechanism of action. mechanism of action. Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
It can modulate the activity of certain neurotransmitter receptors, such as benzodiazepine, GABA, increasing their binding ability. Research shows it also changes the monoamine level and increases the dopamine content in the brain.
This could have an effect on mood and various cognitive functions.18T.A.Voronina. ANTIOXIDANT MEXIDOL. The main neuropsychotropic effects and the mechanism of action. mechanism of action.; Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Promote cellular health
It can also improve the metabolism and health of cell wall membranes and the enzymes that compose them, such as phosphatidylserine.
This can have an overall positive effect on brain health and may be the source of some of these nootropics neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects.19T.A.Voronina. ANTIOXIDANT MEXIDOL. The main neuropsychotropic effects and the mechanism of action. mechanism of action.Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Oxypyridine also reduces the total cholesterol and low-viscosity lipoprotein level in blood and increases the high-viscosity lipoprotein concentration.
This can improve cellular energy metabolism and increase mitochondria activity.20T.A.Voronina. ANTIOXIDANT MEXIDOL. The main neuropsychotropic effects and the mechanism of action. mechanism of action.Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
How Much 3-oxypyridine Should I Take?
The standard dosage for 3-oxypyridine derivitaves is 100-125 mg, 2-3 times a day.
3-oxypyridine Potential Side Effects
There are no known side effects associated with 3-oxypyridine and its derivatives. It seems to be very well tolerated.
Do you have questions about supplementing with 3-oxypyridine? Do you have experience supplementing with 3-oxypyridine? Please share your thoughts in the comments below.
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