3-oxypyridine – An Overview
3-oxypyridine is a synthetic compound that was developed in Russia for cognitive enhancement and protection.
It’s also known by the names of its derivatives, which include emoxypine, Mexidol, or Mexifin.
It may have nootropic benefits for:
It may also have a positive holistic effect on diabetes and heart health.
3-oxypyridine was first synthesized by the Russian Academy Of Medical Science.
It is prescribed for various conditions in Russia, but is not approved for treatment in the US. However, you can purchase it as a supplement.
It is structurally very similar to Vitamin B6. This similarity may be the source of some of oxypyridine’s therapeutic value.
This nootropic appears to work by increasing neurotransmitters (like serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine), inhibiting free radicals, increasing antioxidant activity, and increasing the binding ability of membranes.
It may also improve cerebral blood flow.1T.A.Voronina. <a href=”https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/43a6/5be5a59e71eceacade6a888123635d0a1e44.pdf”
mechanism of action. mechanism of action.,</a> Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical
What Does 3-oxypyridine Do?
3-oxypyridine may have some antidepressant properties. Possibly through its action on neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine.
One trial showed that it can increase dopamine activity in the hippocampus in mice. It also improved behavior that is typically associated with mood.2Ilia A. Volchegorskii, et al. <a href=”https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effects-of-Derivatives-of-3-Hydroxypyridine-and-on-Volchegorskii-Miroshnichenko/a7757bba9948dfeb677e3e2c131f62f6050327a8″
,</a> Neuroscience and Behavioral… 2018
A study of diabetes patients saw that oxypyridine helped with markers of depression after supplementing for 14 days.
Researchers saw that it lowered levels of lipoperoxidation in patients, which is a form of oxidative damage that may be linked to depression and low mood.
It also diminished behavioral manifestations of depression, accompanied by improvement in cognitive functions and quality of life.3Volchegorskiĭ IA, Mester NV. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17520888″
According to researchers, mexidol shows an optimal combination of antidepressant action and impact on carbohydrate metabolism that makes it a promising substance for the treatment of depression in diabetic patients.4Volchegorskiĭ IA, et al. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19441720″
3-oxypyridine also decreased the severity of depressive symptoms, and improved the functional status and quality of life in a group of 62 women with rheumatoid arthritis.
It’s antidepressant effects are most likely linked to it’s anti-inflammatory effects in this case.6Sineglazova AV, Volchegorskiĭ IA. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23461008″
Keep in mind that all of these studies involved patients with underlying conditions health conditions besides depression.
There still needs to be research on whether or not oxypyridine could have a nootropic effect on mood in otherwise healthy users.
Emoxipin’s nootropic effect is related to its ability to lower blood sugar.7Volchegorskiĭ IA, Rassokhina LM, Miroshnichenko IIu. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22379879″
In Russia, doctors prescribe 3-oxypyridine and its derivatives to treat symptoms of diabetes.
It is not widely used outside of Russia for this purpose, but there is clinical evidence it may be effective.
Oxypyridine can help diabetic patients with insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. This may have a wide range of benefits for the user.8Ilya A Volchegorskii, et al. <a href=”https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275577588_Insulin-potentiating_action_of_antioxidants_in_experimental_diabetes_mellitus”
3-oxypyridine may have some benefits for lowering anxiety.
This nootropic significantly reduced manifestations of anxiety and depression in rats with alloxan diabetes.
Emoxypine was the only medication in the study that reduced manifestations of anxiety not only in comparison with ‘alloxan diabetes-control’ groups but also in comparison to ‘intact control’.9Volchegorskii IA, et al. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28638031″
This anti-anxiety effect seems to be linked with 3-oxypyridine’s ability to reduce hyperglycemia.10Volchegorskii LA, et al. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26016320″
Again, just like with its antidepressant effects, these studies have primarily looked at test subjects who also suffered underlying health conditions.
So, the jury is still out on whether or not it would have the same effects on healthy users.
3-oxypyridine may have overall benefits for protecting the brain and preserving cognitive function.
One study looked at mexidol (a 3-oxypyridine derivative) in combination with basic therapy with a group of cognitively impaired adults.
Researchers found that mexidol exerted a positive effect on overall mood, normalized the sleep-wake cycle, and promoted rehabilitation of cognitive function.
They concluded that this nootropic can improve the global clinical state of patients, without serious side-effects.11Kosenko VG, et al. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16841482″
Mexidol also improved the status of patients suffering from encephalophy. This may point to its use as an anti-inflammatory.12Antipenko EA. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22677755″
Another trial looked at mexidol for treating patients with stroke-induced cognitive dysfunction.
When combined with haldorum and aescucan, mexidol contributed to the improvement of cognitive, adaptive, motor functions of the patients.
Researchers concluded that mexidol may have a use for preserving and recovering mental abilities after injury.13Berezhnaya SV, Yakupov EZ. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356397″
Learning and Memory
A single dose of emoxipine and mexidol in mice produces antihypoxic effect according to research. This means that it can increase oxygen flow to the brain.
This can correct conditional learning disorders and improve memory in one trial.14Volchegorskiĭ IA, Rassokhina LM, Miroshnichenko IIu. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22379879″
Another study, also on diabetic mice, seems to confirm this finding. It saw fewer markers of inflammation and oxidation after giving them 3-oxypyridine derivatives, as well as healthier cellular metabolism.
These effects lead to better performance on memory and learning tasks and behaviors.15Volchegorskiĭ IA, Rassokhina LM, Miroshnichenko IIu. <a href=”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21809693″
How 3-oxypyridine Works In The Brain
3-oxypyridine and its derivatives seem to work through a wide variety of pathways.16T.A.Voronina. <a href=”https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/43a6/5be5a59e71eceacade6a888123635d0a1e44.pdf”
These nootropics are powerful antioxidants. Research shows they can increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes, specifically superoxide dismutase.
These are responsible for scrubbing lipid peroxides and active oxygen forms from the body before they can damage cells.17T.A.Voronina. <a href=”https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/43a6/5be5a59e71eceacade6a888123635d0a1e44.pdf”
3-oxypyridine also effectively inhibits free radical oxidation of biomembrane lipids.18T.A.Voronina. <a href=”https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/43a6/5be5a59e71eceacade6a888123635d0a1e44.pdf”
It can modulate the activity of certain neurotransmitter receptors, such benzodiazepine, GABA, increasing their binding ability. Research shows it also changes the monoamine level and increases the dopamine content in the brain.
This could have an effect on mood and various cognitive function.19T.A.Voronina. <a href=”https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/43a6/5be5a59e71eceacade6a888123635d0a1e44.pdf”
Promote cellular health
It can also improve the metabolism and health of cell wall membranes and the enzymes that compose them, such as phosphatidylserine.
This can have an overall positive effect on brain health and may the source of some of this nootropics neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects.20T.A.Voronina. <a href=”https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/43a6/5be5a59e71eceacade6a888123635d0a1e44.pdf”
Oxypyridine also reduces the total cholesterol and low-viscosity lipoprotein level in blood and increases the high-viscosity lipoprotein concentration.
This can improve cellular energy metabolism and increase mitochondria activity.21T.A.Voronina. <a href=”https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/43a6/5be5a59e71eceacade6a888123635d0a1e44.pdf”
How Much 3-oxypyridine Should I Take?
The standard dosage for 3-oxypyridine derivitaves is 100-125 mg, 2-3 times a day.
3-oxypyridine Potential Side Effects
There are no known side effects associated with 3-oxypyridine and its derivatives. It seems to be very well tolerated.
Do you have questions about supplementing with 3-oxypyridine? Do you have experience supplementing with 3-oxypyridine? Please share your thoughts in the comments below.
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About the author:
Erik Levi is a co-founder of HolisticNootropics.com and a certified holistic nutritional therapy practitioner.
As an NTP Erik takes a nutrition first approach to health. He has worked with many different people to help them use nutrition to optimize their quality of life.
Erik believes that mental health is a physiological process and cognitive enhancement is not something that can be achieved by just taking some pills with good Amazon reviews.
Instead, true cognitive enhancement comes with the right balance of nutrients, movement, and gratitude. Erik continues to stay up to date with the most current nootropic and holistic health research and promises to deliver the best solutions possible.
You can check out his personal health blog/podcast/YouTube Channel all under the name Holistic A-Hole.