The 5 Best NMN Supplements| Boost Energy, Longevity, Immunity, & More!

The 5 Best NMN Supplements| Boost Energy, Longevity, Immunity, & More!

While aging is as unavoidable as taxes and a lost wifi connection in that one corner of your house, there is a lot of new and exciting research pointing to ways to slow it down.

One of those ways is by boosting NAD+ with precursors like nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN).

The good news is that NMN supplements are easy to find, affordable, and highly effective as an NAD+ booster.

The following article details everything you need to know about NMN and my top product recommendations.

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What Is NMN (Nicotinamide mononucleotide)

NMN is a NAD+ precursor and one of the products of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis.

Chemically, it is a product of the reaction of a phosphate group and a nucleoside that contains ribose and nicotinamide in the form of nicotinamide adenine mononucleotide or NAM. 1Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

NAM is then converted to nicotinamide mononucleotide NMN through the action of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase or NAMPT.2Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 20183Anthony J. Covarrubias et al, NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during ageingNat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021

This enzyme essentially takes away the adenine from NAM, forming NMN.

A number of recent studies show that NMN can increase NAD+ levels to address NAD+ deficiency, translating to more cellular energy and overall longevity.4Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

How Do NMN Supplements Raise NAD+?

NMN increases NAD+ levels by acting as a precursor or a starting material to produce NAD+. 5Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 2018 6Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

NMN supplements are made to address NAD+ deficiency.

The conception and creation of NMN supplements is based on the premise that NMN is converted to NAD+ through the salvage pathway.

This is advantageous for us since in the salvage pathway, NMN is readily converted to NAD+, meaning there are no additional steps in the formation of NAD+ unlike that in de novo synthesis. 7Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 20208Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 2018

It is safe to say that the use of an NMN supplement is the fastest way compared to other essential compounds such as tryptophan, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid. 9Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 201810Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

In addition, NMN is soluble and is orally bioavailable, meaning the NMN supplement is readily available in the bloodstream once taken orally.

In a study, it was found that NMN is absorbed from the gut and is absorbed into the bloodstream within 2-3 minutes and is completely absorbed into the body tissues and cells within 15 minutes.

NMN is then immediately converted to NAD+ and stored in tissues such as the liver, skeletal muscle, and brain. 11Saikat Kumar Poddar et al, Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: Exploration of Diverse Therapeutic Applications of a Potential MoleculeBiomolecules. 2019

This is another advantage of an NMN supplement being that it is a sound delivery system as it is not invasive like injectable medications.

It can just be taken by mouth and even as a sublingual powder. 12Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

What is NAD+?

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+ is a compound that is essential in cellular function. 13Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020 14Anthony J. Covarrubias et al, NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during ageingNat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021

Without NAD+, all cells in the body will cease to function since many reactions will rely on NAD+ as a coenzyme. 15Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020 16Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

It serves as a coenzyme in many enzymatic reactions in the cell, ultimately leading to increased cellular energy levels.

It is involved in processes such as glycolysis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and the Krebs cycle. 17Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 2018 18Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

NAD+ acts in the different biochemical pathways mainly as a redox agent by easily changing from NAD+ to NADH and vice versa in many key reactions.

How is NAD+ made?

NAD+ is made by using the five compounds: tryptophan, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside (NR), and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). 19Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 2018 20Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

De novo synthesis of NAD+

NAD+ can be made from scratch or de novo by converting the amino acid tryptophan to nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), which is then converted to nicotinic acid dinucleotide (NaAD+) through the enzyme NMN/NaMN adenylyltransferase (NMNAT). 21Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

Finally, it is then amidated to form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) by NAD+ synthetase.22Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 2018 23Anthony J. Covarrubias et al, NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during ageingNat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021 24Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

Preiss-handler pathway of nad+

In this pathway, nicotinic acid is converted to nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NAMN) by nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT).

Then, NAMN serves as a precursor to the production of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD+) by NMNAT.

Finally, NAAD+ is then converted to NAD+ through the enzyme NAD+ synthetase using ammonia and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as additional ingredients for the reaction. 25Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

salvage pathway of NAD+

NAD+ biosynthesis in mammals is done through the salvage pathway which is a major biosynthetic pathway.

In this pathway, nicotinamide is converted by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) to form nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which is a key intermediate of NAD+.

Then, the enzyme NMN/NaMN adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) converts NMN to NAD+. 26Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

From this pathway, it can be inferred that to produce NAD+, NMN has to be converted by NMNAT, making the enzyme a key player in the biosynthesis of NAD+. 27Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 201828Anthony J. Covarrubias et al, NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during ageingNat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021 29Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

This is also the reason that raising NAD+ levels is possible through the use of NMN supplements.

What are the benefits of NMN Supplementation

Cellular Health Benefits

Because NMN is a precursor to NAD+ and NAD+ is an essential coenzyme contributing to cell function

function and importance of nad+ in cells

NAD+ acts as a contributor of an electron to the different biochemical pathways such as glycolysis, resulting in the production of pyruvate and the subsequent conversion to acetyl coenzyme A.30Laura D. Osellame, B.Sc et al, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial functionBest Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012

In the next pathway which is the central biochemical pathway Krebs cycle, NAD+ is again used as a redox agent in the conversion of the many interchangeable products of the pathway to be used in other biochemical pathways. 31Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 201832Laura D. Osellame, B.Sc et al, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial functionBest Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012

This can range from the storage of excess energy to fatty acids in adipose cells and to glycogen in the liver, to the production and conversion of amino acids that are found essential in the building of collagen and maintaining muscle health.

In the ultimate production of ATP, NAD+ acts again as a contributor and as a receiver of an electron in the electron transport chain and finally oxidative phosphorylation. 33Laura D. Osellame, B.Sc et al, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial functionBest Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012

All of these reactions are found mainly in the mitochondria and the cytoplasm.

From the endless list of reactions that NAD+ is a part of, we can say that NAD+ and in conjunction, NMN, play a role in maintaining cellular health through the optimal functioning of these different biochemical reactions that are necessary for maintaining life.

how does NMN affect cells?

NMN supplements give the cells another chance at life by providing more NMN to produce NAD+.

NMN acts as a precursor in the cells to produce NAD+ once it is absorbed from the gut to the bloodstream, and is immediately stored.34Saikat Kumar Poddar et al, Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: Exploration of Diverse Therapeutic Applications of a Potential MoleculeBiomolecules. 2019

As a result, the increase in NAD+ levels will cause the cell’s many organelles such as the mitochondria and the cytoplasm, and their enzymes within, to function optimally.

This causes an increase in the production of ATP as NAD+ is required in many of the cell’s processes from the metabolism of sugars down to fatty acids.

Anti Aging and Longevity

The aging process is an inevitable effect of life.

It is a result of the wear and tear in cells and is even a cause of the decline with the body’s physiology.

the aging process and the effects of aging

A lot of anti-aging research was done to find that fountain of youth, to stave off the dreaded aging symptoms of wrinkling, cognitive decline, poor memory, worsening of the body physiology, and loss of mobility.

It was found that processes such as DNA methylation and shortening of the telomeres in chromosomes are correlated with the deterioration of cells as a result of the aging process. 35Yasmeen Salameh et al, DNA Methylation Biomarkers in Aging and Age-Related DiseasesFront Genet. 202036Adiv A. Johnson et al, The Role of DNA Methylation in Aging, Rejuvenation, and Age-Related DiseaseRejuvenation Res. 2012

In addition, DNA damage may also be a result of depleting NAD+ levels.

During the aging process, there is a proportional decrease in NAD+ levels, which causes problems in the many biochemical processes that require NAD+. 37Anthony J. Covarrubias et al, NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during ageingNat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021

Extensive research was done to delve deeper into the understanding of how aging affects NAD+ levels.

It was found that the decline in NAD+ levels as a result of the aging process is coincidentally linked to the development and progression of diseases that are associated with aging.38Mounica Soma et al, The role of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in anti-aging, longevity, and its potential for treating chronic conditionsMol Biol Rep. 202239Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 201840Anthony J. Covarrubias et al, NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during ageingNat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021

These include atherosclerosis, arthritis, hypertension, cognitive decline, and neurological disorders, diabetes, and cancer.

These diseases cause an imbalance in the body that requires more NAD+ to maintain healthy levels of NAD+ but with the already-depleted NAD+ from aging alone, it can lead to a downward spiral. 41Anthony J. Covarrubias et al, NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during ageingNat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021

how NMN supplements affect the aging process

NMN supplements, still with the premise that they are readily absorbed and converted into NAD+ through the salvage pathway, can have anti-aging benefits.

In addition, it was found in studies that NMN supplements restored gene expression that is linked to many bodily functions that are affected by aging such as the circadian rhythm, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and insulin sensitivity. 42Harshani Nadeeshani et al, Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) as an anti-aging health product – Promises and safety concernsJ Adv Res. 2022 43Kathryn F. Mills et al, Long-term administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide mitigates age-associated physiological decline in miceCell Metab. 2017

As a result, NMN supplements can be used to treat and prevent the age-related disorders of atherosclerosis, arthritis, hypertension, cognitive decline and neurological disorders, diabetes, and cancer. 44Mounica Soma et al, The role of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in anti-aging, longevity, and its potential for treating chronic conditionsMol Biol Rep. 2022

There are studies that suggest that NMN supplements can even reverse some of these conditions. 45Mounica Soma et al, The role of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in anti-aging, longevity, and its potential for treating chronic conditionsMol Biol Rep. 2022

With the increase in NAD+ levels, it was also revealed in other studies that there is reduced DNA damage from the compromised DNA repair brought about by aging. 46Harshani Nadeeshani et al, Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) as an anti-aging health product – Promises and safety concernsJ Adv Res. 2022

This is due to the effects of NMN increasing NAD+ levels as a co-factor and as a redox agent.

Lastly in further research, NMN supplements have been shown to reverse age-associated gene expression and can even improve mitochondrial function in tissues. 47Kathryn F. Mills et al, Long-term administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide mitigates age-associated physiological decline in miceCell Metab. 2017

How does an NMN supplement improve longevity?

The anti-aging benefit was also demonstrated in human trials by measuring telomere length, a good indicator of longevity and lifespan determination.

It was revealed that giving an NMN dose resulted in an increase in the length of the telomere after 30 days of giving the NMN dose.48Kai-Min Niu et al, The Impacts of Short-Term NMN Supplementation on Serum Metabolism, Fecal Microbiota, and Telomere Length in Pre-Aging PhaseFront Nutr. 2021

These anti-aging benefits are a result of NMN products protecting the body from further harm by providing the much-needed NAD+ to maintain the biochemical processes in the body, prolonging life. 49Mounica Soma et al, The role of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in anti-aging, longevity, and its potential for treating chronic conditionsMol Biol Rep. 2022 50Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 201851Anthony J. Covarrubias et al, NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during ageingNat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021

This action of anti-aging supplements such as NMN capsules can help stave off aging.

This makes NMN a good anti-aging supplement that promotes healthy aging.

Cognitive Benefits

Cerebral blood flow mechanics and effect of NMN supplements

The mechanism of cerebral blood flow heavily relies on the action of nitric oxide.

Nitric oxide is an important component of vascular health and serves as a major vasodilator, especially in small arteries and vessels.

The brain comprises many small arteries that arise from the centrally located Circle of Willis, a continuous network of interconnecting cerebral arteries that arise in the brain.

The precursor NMN acts to increase NAD+, which in turn increases the levels of sirtuins.

Sirtuins are enzymes that are vital in the pro-survival biochemical pathways and mitochondrial function in endothelial cells, the cells that make up the walls of the blood vessels.

Sirtuins then decrease the number of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria or mtROS to prevent or mitigate cellular damage from oxidation.

The decrease in mtROS leads to the production of nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation.

Improved vasodilation in the cerebral blood vessel results in the upregulation of neurovascular coupling.

Neurovascular coupling occurs when the brain cells attempt to promote cerebral blood flow in response to vasodilation.

This then allows for increased blood flow to the brain tissue, which is said to promote cognitive function.52Stefano Tarantini et al, Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation rescues cerebromicrovascular endothelial function and neurovascular coupling responses and improves cognitive function in aged miceRedox Biol. 2019

NMN supplementation and effects on cognition

The cognitive benefits of NMN supplements lie in the premise of increasing amounts of NAD+ in the system mentioned.

An increase in NAD+ levels demonstrates a decrease in cognitive decline.

In animal studies, the NMN supplement works specifically increase NAD+ which effect improvement in cerebral blood flow in the brain, improving neurovascular coupling which finally translates to improved neuronal activity. 53Stefano Tarantini et al, Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation rescues cerebromicrovascular endothelial function and neurovascular coupling responses and improves cognitive function in aged miceRedox Biol. 2019

It was found in the study’s results that NMN supplementation significantly improved spatial working memory and gait coordination. 54Stefano Tarantini et al, Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation rescues cerebromicrovascular endothelial function and neurovascular coupling responses and improves cognitive function in aged miceRedox Biol. 201955Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 2018

This is helpful when it comes to the vascular health of the brain as it improves blood flow and at the same time, improves brain function both as an effect of improved blood flow and the innate maintenance of cellular homeostasis in neurons.

Physiological Benefits

As a direct precursor of NAD+, NMN supplements have a myriad of physiologic effects down to a cellular level.

How does NMN supplementation affect cellular function?

NMN supplements affect cellular function by improving cellular respiration.

How does cellular respiration begin?

Cellular respiration is the process wherein from the processing of the macronutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, and fat, the building blocks of those compounds are converted to pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). 56Kathryn F. Mills et al, Long-term administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide mitigates age-associated physiological decline in miceCell Metab. 2017

what is the next step?

These compounds are then transported into the tricarboxylic acid cycle or the Krebs cycle.

Further, into the process, the product of the tricarboxylic cycle is a constant turn which allows for the use of the byproducts of the biochemical process in other ATP-producing means. 57Kathryn F. Mills et al, Long-term administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide mitigates age-associated physiological decline in miceCell Metab. 2017

The next stop is the process called the electron transport chain or ETC wherein an electron is passed along a series of proteins and enzymes and is ultimately passed into the ATP synthase to produce ATP from adenosine diphosphate or ADP. 58Laura D. Osellame, B.Sc et al, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial functionBest Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012

what is adenosine triphosphate or ATP?

ATP is known as the ultimate and most usable form of energy in the body.

It is formed from a process called oxidative phosphorylation.

The process is oxidative since the series of reactions cause the release of oxidative products mainly hydrogen, with the electron passed from the electron transport chain to arrive in the ATP synthase. 59Laura D. Osellame, B.Sc et al, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial functionBest Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012

Once inside the enzyme, the electron serves as a medium for binding of another phosphate group into ADP, forming ATP now having three phosphate groups attached. 60Laura D. Osellame, B.Sc et al, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial functionBest Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012

Where does NMN enter in these processes?

Nicotinamide mononucleotide NMN is a known precursor of NAD+ from the salvage pathway.

What this means is that NAD+ is readily synthesized from NMN.

So, NAD+, which can also occur in the form of its reduced form NADH, is an important compound in the different biochemical pathways mentioned above.

It is the compound used in no less than 100 enzyme-regulated reactions mainly as a source of electrons.

When connecting the dots, NAD+ plays a role from the first stirrings of macromolecules to produce pyruvate and acetyl CoA down to the last step of ATP production, oxidative phosphorylation.61Kathryn F. Mills et al, Long-term administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide mitigates age-associated physiological decline in miceCell Metab. 201762Laura D. Osellame, B.Sc et al, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial functionBest Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012

One cannot stress further the vital role that NAD+ plays in maintaining cellular health.

Maintenance of cellular health also counteracts aging which will result in a decline or diminished capacity for these vital biochemical pathways.63Mounica Soma et al, The role of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in anti-aging, longevity, and its potential for treating chronic conditionsMol Biol Rep. 2022 64Kai-Min Niu et al, The Impacts of Short-Term NMN Supplementation on Serum Metabolism, Fecal Microbiota, and Telomere Length in Pre-Aging PhaseFront Nutr. 2021 65Sean Johnson et al, NAD + biosynthesis, aging, and diseaseVersion 1. F1000Res. 2018

Are there studies that provide proof?

There are clinical trials that use nicotinamide mononucleotide on trained human athletes.

One particular study shows the effects of NMN supplements on respiration and oxygen utilization in these athletes using low, medium, and high doses of NMN.

As for the results, it showed that 6 weeks of treatment with the NMN product showed increased levels of oxygen uptake and respiration oxygen in the body, with an improvement in work rate and peak power.

A conclusion can be drawn in this study that NMN supplementation increased the aerobic capacity of humans during exercise which is especially evident in the skeletal muscle, the organ tested, and the one essential in maintaining muscle health.66Bagen Liao et al, Nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation enhances aerobic capacity in amateur runners: a randomized, double-blind studyJ Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2021

Cardiovascular Health

Heart health is an important component of maintaining life.

how do cardiovascular diseases affect nad+ levels?

Heart failure is the result of prolonged heart injury from a variety of cardiovascular diseases.

In past research studies, heart failure is one of the diseases which has a direct link to mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction.

The reason behind heart failure is the increased mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation, increasing the risk for its development.

Two mechanisms were indicated, the hyperacetylation of the malate aspartate shuttle (MAS) and hyperacetylation of lysine-70.

These two mechanisms lead to the impaired balance of the NADH/NAD+ ratio, leading to decreased NAD+ in the cells. 67Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

The decrease in NAD+ leads to the lack of the redox capability of the system, leading to premature cell death, which leads to the development of heart failure.

How do NMN supplements affect cardiovascular health?

The premise of maintaining proper cardiovascular function is by reversing or inverting the NADH/NAD+ ratio.

Reversal of this ratio favors NAD+, which promotes oxidation or the contribution of an electron in the vital biochemical pathways.

This is possible due to the provision of nicotinamide mononucleotide which leads to its conversion to NAD+, increasing the amount of NAD+ present. 68Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020 69Luis Rajman et al Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the in vivo evidenceCell Metab. 2019

Another application of NMN supplementation is the maintenance of pro-survival capabilities of cardiac cells by maintaining optimum levels or sirtulins which protect cardiac cells from oxidative damage from ROS. 70Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

Were there studies done on NMN and its effect on cardiac function?

It was reported in a study that giving NMN improves cardiac energy utilization and decrease energy wastage in a heart failure model.

NMN in this case, normalizes ventriculoarterial coupling or how the ventricular contraction affects arterial dilation.

Another study reports that there was improved energy for cardiac activity by giving NMN.

It was shown that the NMN prolongs ejection time in the heart.

This means that prolongation of ejection time allows for more blood to flow to the peripheral vessels which then in turn supply blood to the farthest tissues, maintaining cellular homeostasis. 71Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

Lastly, cardiac aging was averted by NMN supplements.

Increasing NAD+ by NMN allows to counteract the effects of aging which is the decreasing levels of NAD+.72Zisong Wei et al, Nicotinamide mononucleotide: An emerging nutraceutical against cardiac aging?Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2021

Neurological Disorders

Aside form cognitive decline, mitochondrial dysfunction from altered levels of NAD+ can also lead to developments of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. 73Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

In these neurological disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction is a feature.

Problems in mitochondrial function are caused and effected by defects in the electron transport chain and the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.

Another contributing factor is the decrease in NAD+ found in mitochondrial dysfunction.

This can be due to aging and also can be due to the dysmorphic mitochondria and the altered positioning of the enzymes that are vital in ATP production. 74Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 202075Sofie Lautrup et al, NAD+ in Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative DisordersCell Metab. 2020

According to science, NMN causes an increase in NAD+ which is a premise for its use on neurological disorders.

In studies, giving an NMN supplement causes improvement in the shape of the mitochondria as well as the positioning and dynamics between energy-producing enzymes.76Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

In another similar study, there was a relationship between the shape of the mitochondria as well as the levels of oxidative damage and the abnormal protein folds found in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

In this study, NMN was given and showed improvement in the mitochondrial shape, and reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species by increasing the activity of sirtulins which protect the neurons. 77Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020

The decrease in ROS resulted in reduced instances of abnormal protein folding and thus reducing the formation of amyloids. 78Weiqi Hong et al Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ MetabolismFront Cell Dev Biol. 2020 (22)

NR vs NMN supplements

What is NR?

Nicotinamide riboside or NR is one of the most studied compounds that is a precursor of NAD+ through the salvage pathway.

In the salvage pathway, nicotinamide riboside is converted into nicotinamide mononucleotide or nicotinamide adenine mononucleotide (NAM), which ultimately leads to the production of NAD+.79Mario Mehmel et al, Nicotinamide Riboside The Current State of Research and Therapeutic UsesNutrients. 2020

From this pathway, the increased levels of NAD+ have a direct influence on the NADH/NAD+ ratio and NADPH, reduced forms of NAD+, which have vital functions.

NADH/NAD+ ratio is important in inhibiting protein hyperacetylation especially in mitochondria to maintain function, whereas NADPH is important in inhibiting oxidative stress as it functions as an electron donor in the Glutathione system.

The Glutathione synthesis pathway is the most important pathway in eliminating oxidative stress through the action of glutathione, the strongest antioxidant produced in the body.80Mario Mehmel et al, Nicotinamide Riboside The Current State of Research and Therapeutic UsesNutrients. 2020

How does it differ from NMN?

Nicotinamide riboside differs from nicotinamide mononucleotide NMN mainly in the part of the salvage pathway in which it is located in.

Nicotinamide riboside is present as the main starting material for the ultimate production of NAD+, which may involve more steps to produce NAD+.

In studies, NR supplementation increased levels of NAD+ in the body at a great level of significance.81Mario Mehmel et al, Nicotinamide Riboside The Current State of Research and Therapeutic UsesNutrients. 2020

Nicotinamide mononucleotide, on the other hand, is just one step away from being converted into NAD+, which is one advantage of taking NMN supplements. 82Raymond D. Palmer et al, Precursor comparisons for the upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Novel approaches for better agingAging Med (Milton). 2021

An NMN supplement delivers NMN readily into the cells for conversion to NAD+. 83Mario Mehmel et al, Nicotinamide Riboside The Current State of Research and Therapeutic UsesNutrients. 2020

Which is better, NR or NMN?

Now for this question, both are similar in terms of bioavailability but NMN clearly has the advantage of being more readily converted to NAD+ than NR. 84Raymond D. Palmer et al, Precursor comparisons for the upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Novel approaches for better agingAging Med (Milton). 2021 85Mario Mehmel et al, Nicotinamide Riboside The Current State of Research and Therapeutic UsesNutrients. 2020

It should be noted that enzymes are saturable and that no larger amount of the precursor needed can be converted at an increased rate.

This means that no matter how much of NR you put into the body, the rate at which it is converted into NAD+ will depend on the number of enzymes present.

The same goes for NMN but the added benefit of it being readily converted into NAD+ will only require it to pass through one enzyme whereas NR requires to first be converted into NMN which, in the salvage pathway, can go one of two ways, with both paths in the pathway requiring the action of at least 2 enzymes. 86Raymond D. Palmer et al, Precursor comparisons for the upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Novel approaches for better agingAging Med (Milton). 2021

The Best NMN Supplements:

Renue by Science LIPO NAD+ Complete – Lipo NMN supplement

Want to know what’s the best NMN supplement? Look no further.

About Renue by Science

Renue by Science is a reputable company that aims to provide a particularly new NMN dosage form using liposomal technology, which they promote that protects the active ingredients from being degraded to NAM which can cause problems such as inhibition of sirtuins.

The company has the Strength and Purity Certification and has displayed other Quality Control Certifications which assure the quality of the products that they produce.

It is the company’s mission to move science forward, drive prices down, set quality standards for assurance, and provide customer service equal to none.

About liposomal NMN capsules

Liposomal NMN contains a coating of phospholipids to prevent it from being digested once it is inside the body and it has improved bioavailability especially if the active ingredients are not water soluble.

This product by Renue by Science Lipo NMN supplement contains powdered liposomal NMN, NAD+, and NR.

It is considered the best NMN supplement due to the liposomal delivery system and the fact that it contains NMN, NAD+, and NR, which speedily fills the demand for NAD+ in the body both as a precursor and as a product of the salvage pathway.

This product is one of three of the only liposomal NAD+ booster available in the market.

Customer reviews

The product is praised by many, having cited that there’s an improvement in energy and recovery, in hair darkening and skin improvements, in improvements in chronic illness, and energy boost with every use.

Here’s what one of the satisfied customers say about the product:

“I’m a committed bio-hacker with strong goals toward longevity. NAD maintenance is high on my list. I recommend this protocol to people every chance I get.” – Schoffner, J.

Renue by Science LIPO NAD+ Complete Price

The product costs $94.95 for a bottle of 90 capsules in their website: https://renuebyscience.com/product/lipo-nad-complete-powdered-liposomal-nad-NMN-nr/

Renue by Science Fast Dissolve – Sublingual NMN supplement

If you are looking for a sublingual NMN, here’s the thing for you.

About Renue by Science

Renue by Science is a reputable company that aims to provide a familiar but effective NMN dosage form, the sublingual tablet, which they promote that it protects the active ingredients from being degraded to NAM which can cause problems such as inhibition of sirtuins.

The company has the Strength and Purity Certification and has displayed other Quality Control Certifications which assure quality from the products that they produce.

It is the company’s mission to move science forward, to drive prices down, to set quality standards for assurance, and to provide customer service equal to none.

About sublingual NMN supplement

Renue by Science has produced a sublingual tablet wherein it contains sublingual NMN.

The sublingual powder are absorbed directly into the bloodstream by giving them under the tongue.

Giving sublingual NMN has the advantage of the NMN not being digested once in the gut or the first-pass effect.

The first-pass effect inadvertently reduces the amount of the active ingredient that arrives in the system to be taken up by the cells.

The readily available NMN is then utilized for the production of NAD+.

Currently, it is the best pure NMN sublingual powder.

Customer reviews

The product is praised by many, having cited that there’s an improvement in energy and recovery, in hair darkening and skin improvements, in improvements in chronic illness, and energy boost with every use.

Here’s what one of the satisfied customers say about the product:

“I am the Reigning 65-69 IRONMAN World Champion, a title earned in October 2017 in Kona, Hawaii. I am able to detect a small “lift” when I take NMN. I require less sleep and recover faster.” – Simpson, R.

Renue by Science Fast Dissolve Price

The product costs $68.95 for a bottle of 240 tablets in their website: https://renuebyscience.com/product/pure-NMN-sublingual-powder-16-grams/

Renue by Science Liposomal NAD+ Complete Nasal Spray with NAD+, NMN and NR – Intranasal NMN supplement

NMN supplements come in many different dosage forms but this one is given intranasally or through the nose.

About Renue by Science

Renue by Science is a reputable company that aims to provide a particularly new NMN dosage form, the liposomal delivery system, which they promote that it protects the active ingredients from being degraded to NAM which can cause problems such as inhibition of sirtuins.

The company has the Strength and Purity Certification and has displayed other Quality Control Certifications which assure quality from the products that they produce.

It is the company’s mission to move science forward, to drive prices down, to set quality standards for assurance, and to provide customer service equal to none.

About Intranasal NMN delivery

This particular product by Renue by Science combines liposomal NMN, NAD+ and NR in an intranasal delivery system.

The intranasal route of administration of this supplement has posed many advantages.

One is that it bypasses the blood/brain barrier since the compound is intended to be distributed into the neurons.

Once it is inhaled, the NMN is delivered from either the olfactory pathway or the respiratory pathway into the brain.

Another advantage of the intranasal route is that there are far fewer systemic adverse effects and that the supplement also bypasses the first-pass effect unlike those taken orally.

Lastly, delivery of intranasal NMN makes NMN more bioavailable in the body unlike other dosage forms.

Customer reviews

The product is praised by many, having cited that there’s an improvement in energy and recovery, hair darkening and skin improvements, in improvements in chronic illness, and in energy boost with every use.

Here’s what one of the satisfied customers say about the product:

“I was taking the NMN tablets for two years, but find I like the NAD+ tablets and spray better, so have switched to those. At 61, I look at least 15 years younger than others my age. Results from Teloyears were even more encouraging as they showed my telomere length to be that of a 20 year old.” – Giacometti, D.

Renue by Science Liposomal NAD+ Complete Nasal Spray with NAD+, NMN and NR Price

The product costs $59.95 for a spray bottle in their website: https://renuebyscience.com/product/pure-NMN-sublingual-powder-16-grams/

Hello100 Liposomal NMN capsules

This product has NMN in its liposomal form and at the same time, has other vitamins and compounds that make it a great anti aging supplement.

About Hello100

Hello100 is a longevity platform that is backed by biohackers, geeks, athletes, and everyone who aims to extend their quality of life.

The company has been gaining reputation for having quality products which are affordable.

Hello100 has Quality Control Certificates which ensure that the NMN supplements that they produce passed quality control standards.

About hello100 Liposomal NMN Capsules

Liposomal NMN contains a coating of phospholipids which offers faster and more stable delivery of NMN in the body which leads to increase in NAD+.

This delivery system ensures that the active ingredient remains intact when delivered into the bloodstream, and protects it from digestion.

This product contains liposomal NMN, folate, vitamin B12, betaine, and resveratrol.

The addition of the other active ingredients make the product good for maintaining cellular health as the other vitamins listed are important in maintaining DNA methylation for longevity.

DNA methylation is an important process of gene expression as it helps in preserving the lifespan of cells, making it a good target for anti aging supplements.

When the DNA is methylated, it activates a cascade of events that results in the translation of DNA to produce proteins which can be structural or enzymatic in nature.

Promotion of gene expression and translation maintains cellular health, resulting in healthy aging.

Customer reviews

The product is praised by it users, citing it as a best NMN supplement for cellular health as it promotes energy utilization and the added anti aging effect.

Customers have rated the product 4.5 out of 5 in Trustpilot.

Here’s what one of the customers say about the product:

“Hello100 product improved my energy levels and mood during the day. I have asked and was given 3rd party lab testing results. Ordered 2 times already.

Will continue using the product because of the liposomal NMN form, which should significantly improve the bioavailability. Resveratrol addition to the same pill is a plus for me.” – Zilvinas

Hello100 Liposomal NMN+ Capsules Price

The product costs $79.00 for a bottle of 60 capsules, 3 bottles for $199.00, and 6 bottles for $349.00 in their website: https://hello100.com/product/h100-liposomal-NMN/

Best Bulk NMN Supplement: Double Wood NMN Powder Supplement

About double wood supplements

The company promotes a vision of health and a foundation of knowledge, wherein they stress transparency and trust to promote customer confidence in their products.

They make high-quality products and they add value to their products by making them more affordable.

They have Certificates of Analysis and third party testing to ensure that their products are of the highest quality.

About Double Wood Supplements NMN Bulk Powder

The Double Wood Supplements NMN Bulk Powder contains pure NMN powder that is contained in a big jar of 30 grams.

The product supports energy metabolism, health aging, and NAD+ production.

Included in the product description is the allergen notice which is a great thing to note especially for those with allergies.

The company promotes that this product gives the best value for the money with 30 grams of product and the recommended dose is between 250mg to 1500mg per day which offers more doses in the bulk powder jar than any other bottle in the market.

Customer reviews

The product is praised by it users, citing it one of the best NMN supplements that they had used over the years garnering 5 star reviews.

Here’s what some of the customers say about the product:

“I have been taking NMN for close to 2 years now and my biomarkers have improved. I like knowing that Doublewood does independent testing on all their products.” – Jeff A.

“I strongly recommend – I believe in doublewood’s overall integrity when it comes to product makeup…and I’m seeing an improvement since I started taking daily for past 3 weeks. Thank you!” – Austen H.

Double Wood NMN Bulk powder Price

You can buy Double Wood NMN Bulk Powder for $129.95 per jar containing 30 grams and a 10% discount for subscribers in their website: https://hello100.com/product/h100-liposomal-NMN/

Best Low- Cost NMN Supplement: Nootropics Depot NMN tablets

About Nootropics Depot

Nootropics Depot is one of the well-known online retailers of nootropics and in this case, NMN products.

They have a variety of products ranging from vitamins and mineral supplements to nootropics for biohackers.

Given the enormity of their reputation in the biohacking space, it is safe to say that their products have met quality control standards and has gained the trust of their customers.

About Nootropics Depot NMN Tablets

This is an NMN brand that offers simplicity by offering tablets for oral use.

Once taken orally, it will undergo digestion or first-pass effect in the gut.

Still existing as the direct precursor of NAD+, the NMN molecule is still present in the system and it is of the pharmaceutical grade NMN.

It can still exert its effects normally and is the most affordable choice of NMN dosage.

Customer Reviews

The product is praised by it users, citing it one of the best NMN supplements that they had used over the years garnering 5 star reviews with 24 reviews and counting.

Here’s what some of the customers say about the product:

“Nootropics Depot’s NMN was the first brand I tried and I was surprised at how much this imroped my energy levels and gave me a sense of improved mental clarity. After reading some online reviews, I tried some other brands (and spent far too much) on some other supplier’s offerings. In the end, I came back to ND because this is the best out of everything I tried.” – Jason

“I have been taking NMN for the past 5 years and just recently switched to the one the Nootropicsdepot guys sell because it’s cheaper and I must say I am not disappointed in the slightest. The efficacy is the same as what I got before and I get results. I’m a heavy smoker (6 cigs on a good day, more on a bad day) and even though I’m 25, people think I’m 14.-16. It freaks me out a bit because it seems as I froze in time ( I don’t seem to age or anything) but I think it must be because I exercise every day for 20 minutes in the morning, I take 500 mg resveratrol, I fast 16-18 hours a day, I take metformin at night (you don’t need a prescription in my country) but most importantly, because of the NMN (I take 625 mg because I weigh 60 kg). I wonder what the next years will bring and, who knows? Maybe I get to live 150!” – Alexander

Nootropics Depot NMN tablets price

You can buy the product for just $26.99 per bottle containing 30 tablets and $47.99 per bottle containing 60 tablets in their website: https://nootropicsdepot.com/nicotinamide-mononucleotide-tablets/

Do Not Age Starter Pack

Looking for NMN with an anti-aging component? Well, take a look here.

About Do Not Age

The company’s mission is to extend healthy lifespan for as many people as possible.

They translate the science so that we can all understand the benefit of their products.

The company has long since been researching on aging and longevity and how to make the perfect anti-aging product.

Hence, the Do Not Age Starter Pack.

About Do Not Age Starter Pack

The Do Not Age Starter Pack contains all of the essentials for maintaining high energy and optimum energy utilization such as NMN with the added benefit of adding anti-aging supplements.

Their starter pack contains the following:

366 x NMN Capsules 500mg – to boost NAD+ levels in the body

366 x TMG Capsules 500mg – to replenish methyl groups which can be used as building blocks for more useful compounds which are especially good for the liver.

366 x Resveratrol Capsules 500mg – it mimics fasting and activates sirtuin 1, maintaining healthy cells.

366 x Quercetin Capsules 400mg – increase the effectiveness of resveratrol as well as giving many other health benefits.

366 x Apigenin Capsules 250mg – controls CD38, which boosts NAD+

366 x SIRT6Activator® Capsules 400mg – activate sirtuin 6, the sirtuin that promotes and maintains cell longevity.

Customer reviews

The product is praised by it users, saying that it is the best anti-aging NMN supplement that they have ever used.

Here’s what some of the customers say about the product:

“I got NMN, reservatrol, berberine, and TMG. I love your products!” – Kibon

“I’m happy with the product. There are many poor-quality products around which simply aren’t worth taking. I was glad to use Do Not Age!” – Danny

Do Not Age Starter PAck Price

Currently, the product is on sale at $1,396.00 from $1,745.00 in their website: https://donotage.org/products/starter-pack/

Are NMN Supplements Safe?

Much has been said on the NMN supplements, the benefits of NMN, and identifying the best NMN supplements in the market in terms of value and price.

Now, one question remains: are NMN supplements safe?

The answer is a very resounding yes!

Animal studies and clinical trials were done to test for the safety of NMN in mice and humans, respectively.

It is important to note that animal studies and especially clinical trials are done to not only determine the efficacy of a given medication or supplement but also the safety of these.

Animal Studies on Safety of NMN

In animal studies, each set amount of NMN dose was given for 91 days in Sprague-Dawley rats in oral doses of 500 mg/kg/day, 1,000 mg/kg/day, and 2,000 mg/kg/day.

It was revealed in the study that no adverse effects were noted when giving the low NMN dose of 500 mg/kg/day and the 1,000 mg/kg/day, and some adverse effects were noted with doses of 2,000 mg/kg/day, which comprised of reduced body weight, reductions in body weight gains, and diminished food consumption.87John Turner et al, Safety Evaluation for Restorin® NMN, a NAD+ PrecursorFront Pharmacol. 2021

Human Studies on Safety of NMN

In clinical trials, 30 healthy volunteers were given NMN for 12 weeks, with an NMN dose of 250 mg/day compared a placebo.

In addition to the assessment of safety, NAD+ was also measured in the blood.

In the trials, administration of NMN caused a significant increase in NAD+ in the blood.

The increase in NAD+ was then correlated with the vital signs comprising the body weight, the body mass index (BMI), the blood pressure, and the pulse rate.

Despite the increase in NAD+ in the blood, there was no significant difference in the vital signs between NMN and the placebo.

The concluded that NMN supplementation resulted in sustained increase of NAD+ levels with the absence of adverse effects.88Keisuke Okabe et al, Oral Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Is Safe and Efficiently Increases Blood Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Levels in Healthy SubjectsFront Nutr. 2022

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Author

Erik Abramowitz is a certified Nutritional Therapy Practitioner (NTP), Naturopathic Doctoral student, health coach, and father. He is the primary content creator for HolisticNootropics.com and the host of the Holistic Nootropics Podcast.

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