Fl Modafinil – Health benefits, side effects, how to use, and more!

fl modafinil
Key Takeaways:
  • Fl Modafinil is a Modafinil analogue which means it delivers similar benefits and actions in the body
  • Unlike Modafinil, Fl Modafinil can be obtained without a prescription
  • Buying Fl Modafinil can be tricky as there are not many suppliers and those who do carry it are usually out of stock.
  • Fl Modafinil is a great option for those who need boosts in focus and concentration.

Fl Modafinil – Health benefits, side effects, how to use, and more!

Fl Modafinil – Everything You Need To Know

Its safe to say that Modafinil is the face of nootropics.

Thanks to the endorsement of many popular health influencers and media personalities, it’s hard to think of nootropics and not automatically think of Modafinil’s limitless cognitive enhancing properties.

The main issue for many, though, is that Modafinil is a prescription drug and can be challenging to obtain. This is why some folks turn to FL Modafinil.

The following post discusses Fl modafinil, the science and benefits behind it, how to best use it, and where you can buy it.

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What Is Fl Modafinil

Fl Modafinil or spelled Flmodafinil, also known as CRL 40,940 flmodafinil, bisfluoromodafinil, or lauflumide, is a modafinil analog, meaning it shares many of the latter’s qualities, such as its therapeutic use, its much-appreciated use as a nootropic, and its additional benefit of the compound being of low rates of dependency. 1wikipedia, CRL-40,940wikipedia. 2022

Modafinil is a medication used to treat narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.

It is commonly used as a nootropic due to its effect on alertness, focus, memory, cognition, and learning.2Muzaffer Kaser et al, Modafinil Improves Episodic Memory and Working Memory Cognition in Patients With Remitted Depression: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled StudyBiol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 20173Dara G Ghahremani et al, Effect of Modafinil on Learning and Task-Related Brain Activity in Methamphetamine-Dependent and Healthy IndividualsNeuropsychopharmacology. 2011

In studies, modafinil has shown to improve episodic and working memory.4Muzaffer Kaser et al, Modafinil Improves Episodic Memory and Working Memory Cognition in Patients With Remitted Depression: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled StudyBiol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017

It also has shown to improve cognitive function and even learning by activating several areas in the brain that promotes cognition and learning.5Dara G Ghahremani et al, Effect of Modafinil on Learning and Task-Related Brain Activity in Methamphetamine-Dependent and Healthy IndividualsNeuropsychopharmacology. 2011

Unlike other prescription smart drugs utilizing amphetamines, modafinil has fewer side effects and a decreased risk of addiction.6Jianjing Cao et al, SARs at the Monoamine Transporters for a Novel Series of Modafinil AnaloguesACS Med Chem Lett. 2011

Effects such as dependence, or addiction colloquially, are deterrents for using amphetamines as a central nervous system stimulant (CNS stimulant) treatment option.

With this in mind, the chemical modafinil has been undergoing clinical trials as a smart drug since it is suggested to improve cognitive function without the problem of addiction.7Jianjing Cao et al, SARs at the Monoamine Transporters for a Novel Series of Modafinil AnaloguesACS Med Chem Lett. 2011

The same can be said for fl modafinil, as mounting scientific research suggests fl modafinil as a potent wakefulness-promoting agent.8Gianina Luca et al, Lauflumide (NLS-4) Is a New Potent Wake-Promoting CompoundFront Neurosci. 2018

Fl Modafinil vs Modafinil

compound structure

Flmodafinil or CRL 40,940 is a bisfluoro- analogue of Modafinil.

This means that unlike Modafinil, flmodafinil has two fluoride parts that connect to the parent compound modafinil.9DR. SHABIULLAH SYYED, Flmodafinil vs. Modafinil: What Exactly is the Difference?modafinil.org. 2022

bioavailability

Chemistry aside, this means that CRL 40,940 has higher bioavailability than modafinil, which is one positive point.

Both modafinil and CRL 40,940 are poorly soluble in water but are quickly absorbed by the body when taken orally, especially in powder form, but CRL 40,940 is more quickly acting.10DR. SHABIULLAH SYYED et al Flmodafinil vs. Modafinil: What Exactly is the Difference?modafinil.org. 2022

half-life

In terms of half-life or how long the two medications stay in the body, flmodafinil has a similar or even longer half-life than the parent drug modafinil, with modafinil having a half-life of 12-15 hours.11DR. SHABIULLAH SYYED et al, Flmodafinil Dosage Guide: 20-150+ mg Dosesmodafinil.org. 2022

dosage

Of the two, flmodafinil is more potent if you base it per mass.

The standard flmodafinil dose is considerably less if you compare it with modafinil, with flmodafinil dosage requiring a low dose.12DR. SHABIULLAH SYYED et al Flmodafinil vs. Modafinil: What Exactly is the Difference?modafinil.org. 2022

side effects

The side effects of modafinil are headache, nausea, and decreased appetite, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, diarrhea, and rhinitis.13Karl Greenblatt; Ninos Adams, ModafinilTreasure Island (FL)StatPearls Publishing. 2022

It may be expected that flmodafinil may have a similar profile on side effects.

safety

Of the two, modafinil is the more researched drug compared to flmodafinil.

Modafinil is already on the market as an FDA-approved prescription drug used to treat narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders.

Given that it is FDA-approved, modafinil has an already-guaranteed level of safety.

Flmodafinil, on the other hand, is a research chemical and is currently being used in clinical studies to test its safety.14DR. SHABIULLAH SYYED et al Flmodafinil vs. Modafinil: What Exactly is the Difference?modafinil.org. 202215DR. SHABIULLAH SYYED et al, Flmodafinil Dosage Guide: 20-150+ mg Dosesmodafinil.org. 2022

Fl Modafinil vs Fl Adrafinil

compound structure

Both flmodafinil and fladrafinil share the same parent chain and have the same and therapeutic uses.

Flmodafinil is the fluoridated analogue of modafinil whereas fladrafinil is the fluoridated analogue of adrafinil.

Flmodafinil and fladrafinil have the same configuration having two fluoride units attached to the main compound.

Again, it is important to stress that flmodafinil and fladrafinil share the same parent chain of modafinil and adrafinil.

bioavailability and half-life

This allows for greater bioavailability compared to the parent drug modafinil.16Gianina Luca et al, Lauflumide (NLS-4) Is a New Potent Wake-Promoting CompoundFront Neurosci. 2018

As for half-life, both drugs have the same half life but both may have varying differences in terms of bioavailability depending on the time of day.17Flavia Napoletano et al, The Psychonauts’ World of Cognitive EnhancersFront Psychiatry. 202018John Bartholdi, MPharmacol , What Is The Difference Between Fladrafinil And Flmodafinil?nootropicology. 2022

This particular nuance may have an effect or a benefit when these compounds are used in a particular time of day.

side effects

Fl adrafinil may have a similar profile of side effects with its nonfluorinated parent adrafinil including malodorous urine, headache, disturbed sleep, anxiety, and feeling unpleasantly stimulated.19ajp, flmodafinilajp. 2022

Fl modafinil, on the other hand, may show similar side effects to modafinil such as headache, nausea, and decreased appetite, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, diarrhea, and rhinitis.20Karl Greenblatt; Ninos Adams, ModafinilTreasure Island (FL)StatPearls Publishing. 2022

safety

Both drugs require more research studies that have more research subjects to test for safety especially in the early phases of trial.

Animal studies must first be done to conduct safety studies with the promotion of further studies should the safety in animal testing is satisfactory.

How Fl Modafinil Works In The Brain

Flmodafinil, like modafinil, is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

From the name of its drug class, CRL 40,940 acts by preventing dopamine reuptake back into the presynaptic neuron.21John A. Gruner, PhD et al, The Roles of Dopamine Transport Inhibition and Dopamine Release Facilitation in Wake Enhancement and Rebound Hypersomnolence Induced by Dopaminergic AgentsSleep. 2009

This allows for more time and frequency of dopamine to bind to the receptors D1 and D2.22John A. Gruner, PhD et al, The Roles of Dopamine Transport Inhibition and Dopamine Release Facilitation in Wake Enhancement and Rebound Hypersomnolence Induced by Dopaminergic AgentsSleep. 200923Sibah Hasan et al, How to keep the brain awake? The complex molecular pharmacogenetics of wake promotionNeuropsychopharmacology. 2009

Effects of Flmodafinil on Dopamine

Flmodafinil inhibits dopamine reuptake at the presynaptic neuron, allowing for the increased dopamine binding to the receptor.

In preliminary studies, it is noteworthy that flmodafinil’s selectivity in its dopamine reuptake inhibition gives it an advantage over other similar nootropics.24Gianina Luca et al, Lauflumide (NLS-4) Is a New Potent Wake-Promoting CompoundFront Neurosci. 2018

This particular selectivity of inhibition allows for a lower but more stable level of dopamine in all the neurons enough to produce feelings of wakefulness but removes the unwanted side effects such as dependence and rebound hypersomnia.

An additional effect of flmodafinil on dopamine is that it promotes improved wake response and arousal with the continued, sustained action of dopamine on the receptors.25Gianina Luca et al, Lauflumide (NLS-4) Is a New Potent Wake-Promoting CompoundFront Neurosci. 2018

In trials, this is the same premise that allows flmodafinil to have applications in many neurological disorders, from sleep-related disorders to attention-deficit disorders and to even neurological disorders resulting from dopamine dysfunction such as Parkinson’s disease.26Google Patents, Lauflumide and the enantiomers thereof, method for preparing same and therapeutic uses thereofGoogle Patents. 202227Benjamin Becker et al, The Effect of Modafinil on Affective and Cognitive ProcessingClinicalTrials.gov. 2019

Role of Dopamine in Wakefulness

Dopamine plays a role in wakefulness but its role is complex.28John A. Gruner, PhD et al, The Roles of Dopamine Transport Inhibition and Dopamine Release Facilitation in Wake Enhancement and Rebound Hypersomnolence Induced by Dopaminergic AgentsSleep. 2009

When binding to D1 and D2 receptors, Dopamine produces wakefulness and increased arousal.

Specifically, dopamine promotes wakefulness by decreasing NREM sleep.

Another critical effect of dopamine is that it causes decreased wakefulness at low levels, whereas, with high levels, it causes increased wakefulness.29Christopher J. Watson, Ph.D et al, Neuropharmacology of Sleep and WakefulnessSleep Med Clin. 2010

But another notion would be how long and frequently dopamine is released to bind to the receptors that produce these effects.

As demonstrated clinically, the continued release of high dopamine levels into the synaptic space to bind to the dopamine receptors can cause rebound hypersomnolence.

Rebound hypersomnolence is a common side-effect of earlier wake-promoting agents such as amphetamines which cause high dopamine levels to bind to the D1 and D2 receptors.30John A. Gruner, PhD et al, The Roles of Dopamine Transport Inhibition and Dopamine Release Facilitation in Wake Enhancement and Rebound Hypersomnolence Induced by Dopaminergic AgentsSleep. 200931Sibah Hasan et al, How to keep the brain awake? The complex molecular pharmacogenetics of wake promotionNeuropsychopharmacology. 2009

Effects of Flmodafinil on Memory and Cognition

As a nootropic or a CNS stimulant, it is hypothesized that flmodafinil might just be the same as modafinil in terms of having the benefit of improved memory and cognition with fewer side effects of sleep debt from rebound hypersomnia.32John A. Gruner, PhD et al, The Roles of Dopamine Transport Inhibition and Dopamine Release Facilitation in Wake Enhancement and Rebound Hypersomnolence Induced by Dopaminergic AgentsSleep. 200933Sibah Hasan et al, How to keep the brain awake? The complex molecular pharmacogenetics of wake promotionNeuropsychopharmacology. 2009

Currently, studies are being undertaken to demonstrate the effects of flmodafinil and its derivatives in several areas of memory and cognition.

The parameters being tested and measured are neural responses from learning behaviors, memory, attention, response time, and reaction time.34Google Patents, Lauflumide and the enantiomers thereof, method for preparing same and therapeutic uses thereofGoogle Patents. 202235Benjamin Becker et al, The Effect of Modafinil on Affective and Cognitive ProcessingClinicalTrials.gov. 2019

Flmodafinil Benefits

Like modafinil, flmodafinil has the same cognitive benefits but with the added benefit of better bioavailability.

Here are some of the potential benefits of flmodafinil.

Wakefulness-promoting agent

Similar to modafinil, flmodafinil induces and maintains wake to avoid daytime sleepiness.

In the study of healthy research subjects, this chemical carries feelings of alertness with no repercussion of feeling sleepy.36Gianina Luca et al, Lauflumide (NLS-4) Is a New Potent Wake-Promoting CompoundFront Neurosci. 2018

One of the potential benefits of flmodafinil is that it improves the capacity to carry out all your day’s taks. 37Jianjing Cao et al, SARs at the Monoamine Transporters for a Novel Series of Modafinil AnaloguesACS Med Chem Lett. 2011 38Gianina Luca et al, Lauflumide (NLS-4) Is a New Potent Wake-Promoting CompoundFront Neurosci. 2018

Cognitive Enhancement

One of the benefits that is currently under clinical trials is the cognitive enhancement by flmodafinil.

In studies on research subjects, flmodafinil, like modafinil, can be used as a smart drug with better bioavailability.

Studies show that the drug improves memory and reduces working memory errors.39Linda Scoriels et al, Effects of modafinil on cognitive functions in first episode psychosisPsychopharmacology (Berl). 201240M Alexandra Kredlow et al, The Efficacy of Modafinil as a Cognitive Enhancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisJ Clin Psychopharmacol. 2019

Mood Enhancer

With the premise that flmodafinil is a structural analog of modafinil, flmodafinil can be used as a mood booster.

Flmodafinil specifically treats the manifestation of residual tiredness and fatigue to induce wakefulness, which translates into a better mood and overall contentment.41M A Menza et al, Modafinil augmentation of antidepressant treatment in depressionJ Clin Psychiatry. 2000

Stress, Mood and Sleep Disorders

Stress

Stress from work and even stress in general may be necessary to move forward.

But there are cases wherein too much stress can cause grossly slow body movements and even poor response to stimuli.

Flmodafinil, with the same expected action as modafinil, can improve the body’s gross movement in response to stress, mainly due to its effects on locomotion from the adrenergic receptors.42Paul Gerrard et al, Mechanisms of modafinil: A review of current researchNeuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2007

Mood

Mood disorders ranging from major depressive disorder to bipolar disorders have been known to affect human function especially in that of society.

It can affect a person’s productivity and can also affect social interaction.

Studies were done on modafinil to combat mood disorders namely depression.

In these studies, modafinil improved mood disorder scores especially in the depression scores.43Alexander J Goss et al, Modafinil augmentation therapy in unipolar and bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsJ Clin Psychiatry. 201344Praveen P Fernandes et al, Modafinil for remitted bipolar depression with hypersomniaAnn Pharmacother. 2003

With flmodafinil, this benefit on mood may also be evident in clinical trials.

Sleep Disorders

With the constant demands of work, people may develop sleep disorders due to sleep deprivation.

For much of the working class, especially those who may work during the day or at night, the random working hours may result in shift work sleep disorder.45Emerson M. Wickwire, PhD et al, Shift Work and Shift Work Sleep DisorderChest. 2017

In this disorder, insomnia develops, which can cause daytime sleepiness due to sleep debt.

The sleep-deprived workers can pose a risk for those around them or occupational risk.

These can result in injury and even death if left unchecked.46Samuel Melamed, Arie Oksenberg, Excessive daytime sleepiness and risk of occupational injuries in non-shift daytime workersSleep. 2002

In some, mood disorders such as anxiety and depression can also cause sleep problems, which can result in the vicious cycle of sleep debt.47Chang-Myung Oh et al, The Effect of Anxiety and Depression on Sleep Quality of Individuals With High Risk for Insomnia: A Population-Based StudyFront Neurol. 2019

In this regard, modafinil and even flmodafinil improve wakefulness and can be used to treat sleep disorders.

Modafinil is a known stimulant which treats many sleep disorders.

Given that flmodafinil has a similar

Clinical Trials/Evidence

Wake Promotion

In a recent study, Flmodafinil is suggested to be a new potent wake-promoting compound.

The study aimed to explore the wake-promoting effects of flmodafinil.

In lab tests, flmodafinil appears to have improved drug-induced wakefulness compared with the placebo, and has improved REM and NREM sleep by affecting specific sleep waves.

Further when comparing with modafinil, the results on wakefulness and recovery sleep are comparable and both have not caused rebound hypersomnia.48Gianina Luca et al, Lauflumide (NLS-4) Is a New Potent Wake-Promoting CompoundFront Neurosci. 2018

Cognitive Enhancer

In a meta-analysis, research was done on the different cognitive enhancers.

As highlighted, flmodafinil is the bisfluoro analog of modafinil that has the same action of modafinil as a treatment for daytime sleepiness.

It can also treat other sleep-related disorders other than narcolepsies such as idiopathic hypersomnia, night-shift sleep disorder, obstructive sleep disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and myotonic dystrophy, depression, schizophrenia, attention-deficit disorder, and cocaine dependence and withdrawal.49Flavia Napoletano et al The Psychonauts’ World of Cognitive EnhancersFront Psychiatry. 2020

Other Clinical trials

Currently, flmodafinil is undergoing clinical trials for the claimed therapeutic uses in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD, narcolepsy, and idiopathic hypersomnia, among others.

Furthermore, as the drug is heavily related to modafinil, flmodafinil appears to have been hypothesized to treat hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralyses or autonomic acts as part of sleep disorders.50Google Patents, Lauflumide and the enantiomers thereof, method for preparing same and therapeutic uses thereofGoogle Patents. 2022

To confirm if flmodafinil can also be a smart drug like modafinil, a recent clinical trial is underway with 60 healthy subjects.

These healthy subjects undergo treatment and are tested for cognitive function with tests for neural processing during the interference processing and neural processing during feedback based learning for the primary outcome, which are the more specific parameters for cognition.

Other outcome measures considered in the study are response time, accuracy, and reaction time.51Benjamin Becker The Effect of Modafinil on Affective and Cognitive ProcessingClinicalTrials.gov. 2019

Is Fl Modafinil A Weak Dopamine reuptake inhibitor?

Flmodafinil is not a potent dopamine reuptake inhibitor, but this does not mean that it is not practical.

This action is what gives flmodafinil its cognitive benefits due to the moderate to high levels of dopamine that bind to the dopamine receptors.52John A. Gruner, PhD et al, The Roles of Dopamine Transport Inhibition and Dopamine Release Facilitation in Wake Enhancement and Rebound Hypersomnolence Induced by Dopaminergic AgentsSleep. 200953Sibah Hasan et al, How to keep the brain awake? The complex molecular pharmacogenetics of wake promotionNeuropsychopharmacology. 2009

Even at a low dose, unlike modafinil, flmodafinil can exert its action at its minimum allowed value.

Optimum dopamine levels promote wakefulness and other benefits such as memory, cognition, and even mood. 54Google Patents, Lauflumide and the enantiomers thereof, method for preparing same and therapeutic uses thereofGoogle Patents. 202255Benjamin Becker The Effect of Modafinil on Affective and Cognitive ProcessingClinicalTrials.gov. 2019

Its higher bioavailability also compensates for it being a weak reuptake inhibitor of dopamine as more molecules of it are present in the bloodstream unlike modafinil.56Gianina Luca et al, Lauflumide (NLS-4) Is a New Potent Wake-Promoting CompoundFront Neurosci. 2018

Flmodafinil, though a weak inhibitor, exerts far more action on the neurons, causing potent behavioral effects, including learning and cognition, than other substances with greater affinity for reuptake inhibition.57Paul Gerrard and Robert Malcolm, Mechanisms of modafinil: A review of current researchNeuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2007

Is Flmodafinil Legal?

Modafinil, its parent compound, has the status of a Schedule 4 Drug by the FDA so a prescription is required before it can be dispensed.

No restrictions on procurement were imposed on the other analogs of modafinil, including flmodafinil.

Currently, flmodafinil is used as a patented research chemical, so it is intended for research use.

Having been used as a research chemical, CRL 40,940 currently has no license or has undergone any safety trials.

Regarding legality, CRL 40,940 is currently used on research subjects in clinical trials.

However, you can purchase flmodafinil as a flmodafinil powder or liquid flmodafinil online with the caveat that some vendors may sell it for research purposes and not for direct human consumption.58DR. SHABIULLAH SYYED, Flmodafinil vs. Modafinil: What Exactly is the Difference?modafinil.org. 202259DR. SHABIULLAH SYYED, Flmodafinil Dosage Guide: 20-150+ mg Dosesmodafinil.org. 202260Mona Darwish et al Armodafinil and modafinil have substantially different pharmacokinetic profiles despite having the same terminal half-lives: analysis of data from three randomized, single-dose, pharmacokinetic studiesClin Drug Investig. 2009

Where To Buy Flmodafinil Capsules Or Powder Online

Flmodafinil is available online as a flmodafinil powder and as liquid flmodafinil.

Powdered flmodafinil is available in capsule form or just powder powdered flmodafinil.

Sellers of high-quality flmodafinil typically cater to a research team who will be conducting the study since flmodafinil is used for research purposes.

Some also provide worldwide shipping, but there may be sourcing problems along the way since the product is commonly sold out.61reddit, Flmodafinilreddit. 201962r/Flmodafinil Flmodafinilreddit. 2019

Many biohackers buy flmodafinil online, but many have griped over the problems in sourcing the compound due to it being almost always out of stock.

In addition, for those looking to buy flmodafinil online, shipping powdered flmodafinil also has its problems as some countries have strict rules on nootropic products like modafinil analogues.

It should be noted that the prescription status of modafinil, like all clinically accepted nootropics, is a schedule IV controlled drug, meaning the person buying the drug must have a prescription as it is strictly one of said prescription drugs.

You can buy flmodafinil in several websites listed below:

https://www.modafinil.com/buy-modafinil-online/

https://www.99purity.com/flmodafinil

Reddit also provides an online venue for interested buyers with trusted sellers:

https://www.reddit.com/r/Flmodafinil/

How Much Does Fl Modafinil Cost?

Currently, the 1500mg (50mg/ml) liquid flmodafinil costs $69.99 per bottle and the 5g powdered flmodafinil costs $180.00.

Flmodafinil tinctures are also available at $30.00 for 30ml.

Flmodafinil tablets cost at around $22.00 to $36.00 depending on the dosage strength.63John Fawkes, Flmodafinil Review: The New Smart DrugThe Unwinder. 2022

However, it should be noted that due to the changes in the supply and demand for flmodafinil, there may be changes in the pricing as it may scale up or down.

Recommended Dose

Currently, while clinical studies are underway, the effective and safe dose range of flmodafinil is from 25mg to 100mg.

Just 25mg of flmodafinil is enough to have that much-wanted nootropic effect.

Doses of up to 100mg are considered safe according to a flmodafinil review 64John Fawkes, Flmodafinil Review: The New Smart DrugThe Unwinder. 2022

Again, it should be noted that clinical studies are still underway to determine the safe dose and that mindfulness of what to dose to take is highly advised.

Standard Modafinil Dose

The standard modafinil dose, as opposed to flmodafinil, is twice that of flmodafinil at 100mg to 200mg.

This shows that flmodafinil is a more potent drug and that biohackers are more inclined to buy flmodafinil.65John Fawkes, Flmodafinil Review: The New Smart DrugThe Unwinder. 2022

In studies, the dose of modafinil is best at 200mg to 400mg, with 400mg divided into two doses per day.

It was reported that in doses of 200mg twice a day, wakefulness significantly improved during the day.66Jonathan R L Schwartz et al, Dosing regimen effects of modafinil for improving daytime wakefulness in patients with narcolepsyClin Neuropharmacol. 2003

Fl Modafinil Half-Life

Half-life is defined as the time it takes for a concentration of a substance to decrease to half the concentration.

Modafinil has a half-life of 12-15 hours.

With this in mind and that flmodafinil is an analogue of modafinil, it is said that flmodafinil may have a similar half-life to that of modafinil.

But there are claims that flmodafinil may have a longer half life than that of modafinil. 67Mona Darwish, Pharmacokinetics of armodafinil and modafinil after single and multiple doses in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with treated obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized, open-label, crossover studyClin Ther. 2010

This is one advantage that flmodafinil has over modafinil one of the analogues.

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Erik Abramowitz is a certified Nutritional Therapy Practitioner (NTP), Naturopathic Doctoral student, health coach, and father. He is the primary content creator for HolisticNootropics.com and the host of the Holistic Nootropics Podcast.

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